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High-Performance Materials for Piezo Applications


CeramTec has developed special highperformance materials for implementation in piezo applications, as piezoceramic components are sometimes exposed to high stresses, and must still fulfil their functions with maximum reliability. With their different qualities and application options, SONOX® and PZT materials are synonymous with premium efficiency and maximum reliability in the world of sensors and transducers.

Material Categories

Piezoceramic materials are categorized according to their chemical composition and, on the other hand, by the specific application conditions. Besides the typical parameters (see data sheets), selection criteria include behavior under high electrical and mechanical loads. The following material categories are differentiated:


Materials for power transducers

SONOX® P4, SONOX® P8, PZT401, PZT807

These materials withstand both high electrical driving voltages and intense mechanical (pressure) loads and are characterized by:

  • Low dielectric loss
  • Permittivity in between 900 and 1400
  • High mechanical quality factor in between 500 and 2000
  • High Curie temperature
  • High coercive field strength

Materials of this type are specifically well suited for high-performance ultrasonic applications in the range from 20 kHz to several MHz.


Materials for sensor applications

SONOX® P5, SONOX® P502, SONOX® P504, SONOX® P508, PZT 503, PZT5A1, PZT 5A4, PZT5H1
  • Permittivity in between 1000 and 2000
  • High piezoelectric activity (d33 ≥ 400 * 10-12 C/N)
  • Low mechanical quality factor (≤100)

Sensor applications are mainly combined systems in which the piezoceramic is used as ultrasonic-transmitter on the one hand and as a receiver on the other hand. SONOX® P502 and SONOX® P504 are specially developed materials with a high rate of thermal and temporal stability. For this reason, they are very suitable for automotive applications in the area ranging from –40 to +160º Celsius.


Special materials

  • SONOX® P1 lead free (P1LF).

Additional special materials are available upon request.

Applications & Materials

Typical ApplicationsSuitable Material

Ultrasonic cleaning

Sonar technique


Sensor technique

Material testing

Medical diagnostics and therapy

Ultrasonic machining and joining
techniques (welding, drilling)


Piezo electric generators


Performance Data

 Power transducersSensor applicationsActuating applications
Relative permittivity ε33 Τ/ε0  1,000 ­– 1,3951,500-3,4001,800 – 3,800
Loss factor tan σ



12x10-3 –


15x10-3 –


Coupling factor kP

 0.54 – 0.58

0.59 – 0.620.65

Charge constant d33 10-12 C/N

240 – 315390 – 620475 – 680
Voltage constant g33 10-3 Vm/N500 – 1,20022.7 – 33.120.2 –28.5
Quality Qm500 – 1,20060 – 90 75 – 80
Piezoceramic components for electromechanical transducers

Piezoceramic Products

Piezoceramics have a wide range of uses. Piezoceramics are used in the automotive industry in a number of applications such as in knock and oil level sensors or as actuators for precise control of injection processes in engines. In medical technology piezoceramic components can be found in lithotripters, devices for plaque removal and in inhalers. Common applications in mechanical engineering include ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasonic welding and active vibration damping. Pickups for musical instruments or burglar alarms are examples for the use of piezoelectric technology in consumer applications.

Expertise in Piezo Ceramics

Recycling of Piezoceramic Components

RoHS Directive

RoHS: Directive on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

This directive describes the avoidance of hazardous or harmful substances in electrical or electronic equipment. CeramTec's Multifunctional Ceramics Division sells ceramic components and is therefore not directly affected by this directive - but our customers may be. The main component of piezoceramic components are lead compounds such as lead zirconate and lead titanate. Unfortunately, this is unavoidable. This is also the view of the European Commission. This is why, for example, lead compounds in ceramic compounds are exempt from the ban in the "End-of-Life Vehicle Regulation".

Despite this, or precisely because of this, we want to support our customers in this respect: CeramTec offers to take back piezoceramic components and to dispose of them in an environmentally friendly way or to recycle them. The prerequisite is that the piezoceramics are delivered without foreign components (i.e. not in the housing or cast in). If you are interested in recycling, please contact us. We will be happy to make you an offer.

Another step towards RoHS conformity is the development of the lead-free piezoceramic special material SONOX® P1 LF by CeramTec.